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考研英语写作的“七项基本原则”

作者:未知   来源:网络   发布时间:2016-11-28 09:44   点击:
摘要:一、 长短句原则 工作还得一张一驰呢,老让读者读长句,累死人!写一个短小精辟的句子,相反,却可以起到画龙点睛的作用。而且如果我们把短句放在段首或者段末,也可以揭示主题: As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary
  一、 长短句原则

  工作还得一张一驰呢,老让读者读长句,累死人!写一个短小精辟的句子,相反,却可以起到画龙点睛的作用。而且如果我们把短句放在段首或者段末,也可以揭示主题:

  As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in awayquite similar.

  如此可见,长短句结合,抑扬顿挫,岂不爽哉?牢记!

  强烈建议:在文章第一段(开头)用一长一短,且先长后短;在文章主体部分,要先用一个短句解释主要意思,然后在阐述几个要点的时候采用先短后长的句群形式,定会让主体部分妙笔生辉!文章结尾一般用一长一短就可以了。

  二、 主题句原则

  国有其君,家有其主,文章也要有其主。否则会给人造成“群龙无首”之感!相信各位读过一些破烂文学,故意把主体隐藏在文章之内,结果造成我们稀里糊涂!不知所云!所以奉劝各位一定要写一个主题句,放在文章的开头(保险型)或者结尾,让读者一目了然,必会平安无事!特别提示:隐藏主体句可是要冒险的!

  To begin with, you must work hard at your lessons and be fully prepared beforetheexam(主题句). Without sufficient preparation, you can hardly expect to answer all the questions correctly.

  三、 一 二 三原则

  领导讲话总是第一部分、第一点、第二点、第三点、第二部分、第一点… 如此罗嗦。可毕竟还是条理清楚。考官们看文章也必然要通过这些关键性的“标签”来判定你的文章是否结构清楚,条理自然。***方法很简单,只要把下面任何一组的词汇加入到你的几个要点前就清楚了。

  1)first, second, third, last(不推荐,原因:俗)

  2)firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally(不推荐,原因:俗)

  3)the first, the second, the third, the last(不推荐,原因:俗)

  4)in the first place, in the second place, in the third place, lastly(不推荐,原因:俗)

  5)to begin with, then, furthermore, finally(强烈推荐)

  6)to start with, next, in addition, finally(强烈推荐)

  7)first and foremost, besides, last but not least(强烈推荐)

  8)most important of all, moreover, finally

  9)on the one hand, on the other hand(适用于两点的情况)

  10)for one thing, for another thing(适用于两点的情况)

  建议:不仅仅在写作中注意,平时说话的时候也应该条理清楚!

  四、 短语优先原则

  写作时,尤其是在考试时,如果使用短语,有两个好处:其一、用短语会使文章增加亮点,如果老师们看到你的文章太简单,看不到一个自己不认识的短语,必然会看你低一等。相反,如果发现亮点—精彩的短语,那么你的文章定会得高分了。其二、关键时刻思维短路,只有凑字数,怎么办?用短语是一个办法!比如:I cannot bear it.可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it. I want it.

  可以用短语表达:I am looking forward to it.这样字数明显增加,表达也更准确。

  五、 多实少虚原则

  原因很简单,写文章还是应该写一些实际的东西,不要空话连篇。这就要求一定要多用实词,少用虚词。

  我这里所说的虚词就是指那些比较大的词。比如我们说一个很好的时候,不应该之说 nice 这样空洞的词,应该使用一些诸如 generous, humorous, interesting, smart, gentle, warm-hearted,hospital 之类的形象词。再比如:

  走出房间,general 的词是:walk out of the room

  但是小偷走出房间应该说:slip out of the room

  小姐走出房间应该说:sail out of the room

  小孩走出房间应该说:dance out of the room

  老人走出房间应该说:stagger out of the room

  所以多用实词,少用虚词,文章将会大放异彩!

  六、 多变句式原则

  1)加法(串联)

  都希望写下很长的句子,像个老外似的,可就是怕写错,怎么办,最保险的写长句的方法就是这些,可以在任何句子之间加 and, 但最好是前后的句子又先后关系或者并列关系。比如说:

  I enjor music and he is fond of playing guitar.如果是二者并列的,我们可以用一个超级句式:

  Notonlythefurcoatissoft,butitisalsowarm.(notonly…butalso…)

  其它的短语可以用:besides, furthermore, likewise, moreover

  2)转折(拐弯抹角)

  批评某人缺点的时候,我们总习惯先拐弯抹角说说他的优点,然后转入正题,再说缺点,这种方式虽然阴险了点,可毕竟还比较容易让人接受。所以呢,我们说话的时候,只要在要点之前先来点废话,注意二者之间用个转折词就够了。

  The car was quite old, yet it was in excellent condition. Thecoatwasthin,but it was warm.

  更多的短语:despite that, still 仍, however 然而, nevertheless 然而, in spite of 不管, despite不管, notwithstanding .虽然

  3)因果(so, so, so)

  昨天在街上我看到了一个女孩,然后我主动搭讪,然后我们去咖啡厅,然后我们认识了,然后我们成为了朋友…可见,讲故事的时候我们总要追求先后顺序,先什么,后什么,所以然后这个词就变得很常见了。其实这个词表示的是先后或因果关系!

  The snow began to fall, so we went home.

  更多短语:then, therefore, consequently, accordingly, hence, as a result, for this reason, so that

  4)失衡句(头重脚轻,或者头轻脚重)

  有些人脑袋大,身体小,或者有些人脑袋小,身体大,虽然我们不希望长成这个样子,可如果真的是这样了,也就必然会吸引别人的注意力。文章中如果出现这样的句子,就更会让考官看到你的句子与众不同。其实就是主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句的变形。

  举例:This is what I can do. Whether he can go with us or not is not sure.

  同样主语、宾语、表语可以改成如下的复杂成分:When to go, Why he goes away…

  5)附加(多此一举)

  如果有了老婆,总会遇到这样的情况,当你再讲某个人的时候,她会插一句说,我昨天见过他;或者说,就是某某某,如果把老婆的话插入到我们的话里面,那就是定语从句和同位语从句或者是插入语。

  The man whom you met yesterday is a friend of mine. I don’t enjoy that book you are reading.

  Mr liu, our oral English teacher, is easy-going.

  其实很简单,同位语--要解释的东西删除后不影响整个句子的构成;定语从句—借用之前的关键词并且用其重新组成一个句子插入其中,但是 whom or that 关键词必须要紧跟在先行词之前。

  6)排比(排山倒海句)

  文学作品中最吸引人的地方莫过于此,如果非要让你的文章更加精彩的话,那么我希望你引用一个个的排比句,一个个得对偶句,一个个的不定式,一个个地词,一个个的短语,如此表达将会使文章有排山倒海之势!

  Whether your tastes are modern or traditional, sophisticated or simple, there is plenty in London for you.

  Nowadays, energy can be obtained through various sources such as oil, coal, natural gas,solar heat, the wind and ocean tides.

  We have got to study hard, to enlarge our scope of knowledge, to realize our potentials and to pay for our life. (气势恢宏)

  要想写出如此气势恢宏的句子非用排比不可!

  七、 挑战极限原则

  既然十挑战极限,必然是比较难的,但是并非不可攀!

  原理:在学生的文章中,很少发现诸如独立主格的句子,其实也很简单,只要花上 5 分钟的时间看看就可以领会,它就是分词的一种特殊形式,分词要求主语一致,而独立主格则不然。比如:

  The weather being fine, a large number of people went to climb the Western Hills.

  Africa is the second largest continent, its size being about three times that of China.

  如果您可一些出这样的句子,不得高分才怪!

  文章主体段落三大杀手锏:

  一、举实例

  思维短路,举实例!提出一个观点,举实例!提出一个方案,举实例!而且者也是我们揭示一个观点最好的方式,任何情况下,只要我们无法继续文章,不管三七二十一,尽管举例子!

  In order to attract more customers, advertisers have adopted every possible stimulative factor in making ads, such as sound, light, colours, cartoon films and human performance. For instance, to advertise a certain food, advertisers will ask an actor or actress to sit at a table and devour the seemingly delicious food while they fime him or her.

  更多句型:To take … as an example, One example is…, Another example is…, for example

  二、做比较

  方法:写完一个要点,比较与之相似的;又写完一个要点,再比较与之相反的;

  世界上没有同样的指纹,没有相同的树叶,文章亦同,只有通过比较,你才会发现二者的相同点(through comparison)和不同点(through contrast) 。下面是一些短语:

  相似的比较:in comparison, likewise, similarly, in the same manner

  相反的比较:on the other hand, conversely, whereas, while, instead, nevertheless, in contrast, on the contrary, compared with …,…

  三、换言之

  没话说了,可以换一句话再说,让你的文章在多一些字,或者文邹邹地说,是让读者更充分的理解你的观点。

  实际就是重复重复再重复!下面的句子实际上就三个字 I love you!

  I am enthusiastic about you. That is to say, I love you.

  I am wild about you. In other words, I have fallen in love with you.

  或者上面我们举过的例子:

  I cannot bear it.可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.

  因此可以这样说:I cannot bear it. That is to say, I cannot put up with it or I am fed up with it.

  更多短语:in more difficult language, in simpler words, put it more simply“引言”段落中的常用句型:

  1. …is a very popular topic which is much talked about not only by …but also by …

  家庭人口多好还是家庭人口少好是一个非常通俗的主题,不仅是城里人,而且农民都经常谈论这个问题。

  Weahter a large family is a good thing or not is a very popular topic which is often talked about not only by city residents but by farners as well.

  2.There is no denying the fact that…

  无可否认,空气污染是一个极其严重的问题:城市当局应该采取有力措施来解决它。

  There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extemerely serious problem:the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it.

  3.As is known to all,…

  众所周知,假冒伪劣商品损害了消费者的利益。

  As is known to all,fake and inferior commodities harm the interests of consumers.(=do a lot of harm to the interests of comsumers)

  4.More and more people are realing the importance of …

  现在越来越多的人认识到法制教育的重要性。为了维护社会治安,我们每人都应该接受法制教育。

  Tody an increaasing number of people have realized that law education is of great importance .In order to keep law and order,very one of us is supposed to get(=receive)a law education.

  5.FromwhatIhavementionedabovewecanseeclearlythat…

  从上面我所提到的,我们可以清楚地看到,电视暴力对青少年的影响是极其深远的。

  From what I have mentoned above,we can see clearly that violence on TV has great influence on young adults’behaviour.(或 teenagers’behavior 或 youngsters’behavior)

  “正文”段落中常用的句型:

  1.There are some good reasons for…(分析原因)

  two possible

  人民生活状况的改善原因有两点。首先,我们一直在贯彻执行改革开放政策。其次,国民经济正在迅速发展,而且出生率已经得到控制。

  There are two reasons for the improvement in people’s living conditions.Inthefirst place,we have been carrying out the reform and opening-up policy.Secondly,there has been a rapid expansion of our national economy .Further-more,the birth rate has been put under control.

  2.My suggestions to deal with the problem are as follows.In the first place,… Secondly,…Finally… solve

  tackle

  relieve (提出建议)

  我对解决这个问题的建议如下。首先,迫在眉睫的是建立自然保护区。其次,有些濒临灭绝的珍稀野生动物应该收捕、人工喂养并繁殖。最后,对于捕猎珍稀野生动物的人必须严惩。

  My suggestions to deal with the problem are as follows .To begin with,it is urgent to create nature reserves.Secondly,certain rare wild animals that are goingtobeextinct should be collected,fed and reproduced artificially.Finally ,those who hunter them must be punished severely.

  3.Different people have different opinions on this question.Some people believe that …

  Others

  problem. matter. argue that… Still others assert that…(论述不同看法)

  人们对失败持有不同的态度。面对失败,有人能够经得起考验,从失败中汲取教训,并努力去完成他们下定决心要做的事情。然而,另一些人却丧失信心并退却了。

  People differ in their attitudes towards failure.Faced with it ,some of them can stand up to it .draw useful lessons from it and try hard to fulfii what they are determined to do.Others,however,lose heart and give in.

  4.It is important (nessary, urgent, difficult, easy, expensive, desirable, abvisable,convenient, comfortable)for sb. to do sth. (发表意见)

  人们希望建立更多的医院、购物中心、娱乐中心、电影院和其他公用设施来满足人民日益增长的需求。

  It is desirable to build more hospitals,shopping centres,recreation centres,cinemas and other public facilities to meet the growing needs of people.

  5.As a popular saying goes “Everything has two sides.” (分析利弊)

  常言道:“事物总是一分为二的”。如今人们从科技发明中得到越来越多的好处。另一方面,科技进步也给我们带来了许多麻烦。现在许多国家的人民饱尝公害之苦。

  As a popular saying goes, “Everything has two sides.” Now people (the public)are benefiting more and more from scientific and technological inventions. On the other hand,the progress of science and technology is bringing us a lot of trouble.Peoplein many countries are srffering from public hazards.

  6.For example, … (举例阐述) For instance, … Let’s take …for examlpe.

  就拿汽车为例。汽车不仅污染城市空气,而且使城市拥挤不堪。此外,汽车造成许多交通事故。汽车所产生的噪音使居住在街道两旁的居民日夜不得安宁。

  Les ’ s take cars for example.They not only pollute the air in cities,but make them crowed.Furthermore,they carse a lot of traffic accidents. (…, they are responsible for a lot of traffic accidents.) The noise made by cars disturbs the residents living on both sides of streets all day and night.

  7.It is generally believed that … accepted (引证观点) thought held

  普遍认为,在发达国家人口增长的主要原因与其说是出生率的上升,还不如说是由于医疗保健的改善的使死亡率下降了。

  It is generally believed (=thought) that the chief reason for the increase in population in developed coutries is not so much the rise in birth rates as the decline in death rates as a result of the improvement in medical care.

  8. …causes (produces, brings about, leads to, results in …)(因果关系)毫无疑问,需求的增长导致了价格的上涨。

  There is no doubt that the increase in demand causes(results in/leads to) the rise in prices.

  图表概述或描述中常用的句型

  1. As is shown by the graph,… (概述图表)

  in the table.

  正如曲线所示,最近 54 年来该国人口飞速增长。

  As is shown by the graph,there has been a rapid increase in the population of the country in the past five years.

  2. It can be seen from the table that … (得出结论) shown graph concluded figures estimated statistics

  A. 从表中所给的统计数字可以看出,从 1985 年到 1990 年中国的人均收入迅速提高。

  From the statistics given in the table it can be seen that the average personal income of the Chinese people increased (grew 、rose) rapidly from 1985 to 1990.

  B. 从曲线图可以得出结论,最近 5 年来中国人口的出生率已经大大下降。

  It can be concluded from the graph that there has been a great decline in birth rates in China in the past five years.

  3. … amount to … (数量总计) add up to come to

  sum up to

  全部费用合计 200 美元。All the expenses (costs) amount to (= add up to) $ 200.

  4. … increase from … to … ( 数量增减 ) decrease rise fall drop

  A. 这个工厂生产的彩电已由 1986 年的 5000 台增加到 1990 年的21000 台。

  The number of colour TV sets produced by the factory increased (rose , grew , climbed) from 5000 in 1986 to 21000 in 1990.

  B.参加者的人数增加到 30 万。The number of paticipants grew up to 300000 persons = increased , reaching 300000 persons).

  C. 这个学校的教职工人数已减少到 700 人。The number of teaching staff members in this school has decreased to 700 persons.

  5.(be)three times as + 形容词 + as 总产量 total output 钢的年产量 the annual output of 上升 17% rise by 17per cent steel 日产量 the daily output 导致产量下降 result in a diminished output

  现在我们地区的粮食产量相当于 1970 年的 3倍。

  The grain production (= output)in our area now is three times as great as that of 1970.

  6.Compared with … , …

  与去年相比,今年 13 项主要产品的产量都有大幅度增长。The factory has an output of 9 million cigarettes daily.

  Compared with that of last year,the output of 13 main products (= items) this year has increased to a great extent.

  7.There is (was) a rapid rise in … be on the rise

  has been sharp increase on the increase

  sudden decrease on the decline

  steady decline

  gradual fall

  slow drop

  slight

  最近几年来这个地区的棉花产量有了迅速增长。

  The cotton output in this area has increased rapidly in the past few years.

  ——“结尾”段落中常用的句型:

  1. In my opinion, … 2. Personally, I … 3. In short (= In brief), …

  4. In conclusion, … 5.As far as I’m concerned, … 6. To conclude , it seems clearthat…

  至于说到我,我赞成前一种观点。所以,我的结论是,只要我们坚持正确的东西,改正错误的东西,我们就一定能成功。

  As far as I’ mconcerned,I’ m in favour of the former view.Therefore,my conclusion is that we are certain to succeed as long as we stick to what is right and correct what is wrong.
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